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*Problem:* Formulas become very large.

Complex objects and properties.

*Solution:* Introduce new function- and predicate-constants.

Capture undersingle namean object respectively property whose description with the help of the basic constants is very large.

*Abstraction*- Refer to complex notion just by a name.
- Not necessary to repeat its description over and over again.

*Parameterization*- Refer to common core of similar notions by a name.
- Use parameters to distinguish between different instances.

Author: Wolfgang Schreiner

Last Modification: October 14, 1999