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- Aren't programs simpler than logic formulas?
- Everyday mathematics simpler than programs.
- Assignment versus equality!
*Program*versus*mathematical*functions.

- Methods for reasoning about programs based on toy languages.
- Simpler than real programming languages.
- More complicated than simple logic.

- Resemblance often misleasing:
- {
*x=0*}`y`:=`x`+1 {*y=x+1*} `x`:=0;`y`:=`x`+1; write(`y`,`x`+1)- May be different in certain contexts (aliasing)!

- {

*Real languages contain difficult concepts because they must yield
reasonably efficient programs for complex computers.*

Author: Wolfgang Schreiner

Last Modification: May 14, 1998